Regions Beyond does not undertake regular activities as an entity other than the two yearly Fusion weekend family camp and conference. Its safeguarding policy is seen as an umbrella policy to which the event organisers of the Fusion weekend must adhere, producing their own short appendix to the policy for each event, detailing its procedures for the event.
Name of Organisation: REGIONS BEYOND UK
Address: Registered address at the time of the event
Tel No: 074393 356443
General Email address: email@example.com
Senior Leader Name: Steve Oliver
Senior Leader Contact Telephone / Email: via general email above
Safeguarding Coordinator Name: as at the time of the event – may change for each event
Safeguarding Coordinator Contact Telephone / Email: event specific as above
Charity Number: 1152827
Company Number: 08561531
Regulators: Charity Commission
Insurance Company: Ansvar
- Our Commitment
As a Leadership we recognise the need to provide a safe and caring environment for children, young people and adults. We acknowledge that children, young people and adults can be the victims of physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. We accept the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant of Human Rights, which states that everyone is entitled to “all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status”. We also concur with the Convention on the Rights of the Child which states that children should be able to develop their full potential, free from hunger and want, neglect and abuse. They have a right to be protected from “all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s), or any other person who has care of the child.” As a Leadership we have therefore adopted the procedures set out in this safeguarding policy in accordance with statutory guidance, and these will be communicated to the event Safeguarding Coordinator well in advance of event planning. We are committed to build constructive links with statutory and voluntary agencies involved in safeguarding.
The policy and any attached practice guidelines are based on the ten Safe and Secure safeguarding standards published by thirtyone:eight.
The Leadership undertakes to:
- endorse and follow all national and local safeguarding legislation and procedures, in addition to the international conventions outlined above.
- Ensure that those working with the children and vulnerable adults have been appropriately cleared for this work. The event Safeguarding Coordinator will be expected to ensure that all workers have had relevant on-going safeguarding training and will review the operational guidelines issued by thirtyone:eight.
- ensure that the premises used meet the requirements of the Equality Act 2010 and all other relevant legislation, and that it is welcoming and inclusive.
- support the event Safeguarding Coordinator(s) in their work and in any action they may need to take in order to protect children and adults with care and support needs.
- the Leadership agrees not to allow the document to be copied by other organisations.
- Section 2
Understanding abuse and neglect
Defining child abuse or abuse against an adult is a difficult and complex issue. A person may abuse by inflicting harm or failing to prevent harm. Children and adults in need of protection may be abused within a family, an institution or a community setting. Very often the abuser is known or in a trusted relationship with the child or adult.
In order to safeguard those at our events we adhere to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and have as our starting point as a definition of abuse, Article 19:
- States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.
- Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.
Also for adults the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights with particular reference to Article 5:
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Detailed definitions, and signs and indicators of abuse, as well as how to respond to a disclosure of abuse, are included here in our policy.
The Leadership, via the event Safeguarding Coordinator and childrens/youth work leaders will ensure all workers will be appointed, trained, supported and supervised in accordance with government guidance on safe recruitment. This includes ensuring that:
- There is a written job description / person specification for the post
- Those applying have completed an application form and a self declaration form
- Those short listed have been interviewed, referenced and confirmed to hold relevant DBS checks via their supporting churches.
- Training levels have been checked and support training provided where necessary
- The applicant/volunteer worker has been given a copy of the organisation’s safeguarding policy and knows how to report concerns.
The Leadership is committed to developing a culture of awareness of safeguarding issues to help protect everyone, and to providing support training where appropriate to supplement the training received via their supporting churches. All our workers will receive induction training and event specific information.
The Leadership will also ensure that children and adults with care and support needs are provided with information via the Safeguarding Coordinator on where to get help and advice in relation to abuse, discrimination, bullying or any other matter where they have a concern.
Management of Workers – Codes of Conduct
As a Leadership we are committed to supporting all workers and ensuring they receive support and supervision. All workers who have contact with children or adults in need of support in the course of their duties will be issued with a code of conduct towards children, young people and adults with care and support needs. They will be required to assent to this code of conduct for the event.
- Section 3
As an organisation / place of worship working with children, young people and adults with care and support needs we wish to operate and promote good working practice. This will enable workers to run activities safely, develop good relationships and minimise the risk of false or unfounded accusation.
Working in Partnership
The diversity of organisations and settings means there can be great variation in practice when it comes to safeguarding children, young people and adults. This can be because of cultural tradition, belief and religious practice or understanding, for example, of what constitutes abuse.
We believe good communication is essential in promoting safeguarding, both to those we wish to protect, to everyone involved in working with children and adults and to all those with whom we work in partnership. This safeguarding policy is just one means of promoting safeguarding.
- Section 4
Responding to allegations of abuse
Under no circumstances should a volunteer or worker carry out their own investigation into an allegation or suspicion of abuse. Follow procedures as below:
- Documenting a concern
The worker or volunteer should make a report of the concern in the following way:
- The person in receipt of allegations or suspicions of abuse should report concerns as soon as possible to the event Safeguarding Coordinator. These details will be entered onto the event specific Appendix to this policy.
This person is nominated by the Leadership to act on their behalf in dealing with the allegation or suspicion of neglect or abuse, including referring the matter on to the statutory authorities.
- In the absence of the Safeguarding Co-ordinator or, if the suspicions in any way involve the Safeguarding Co-ordinator, then the report should be made to their deputy. These details will be entered onto the event specific Appendix to this policy.
If the suspicions implicate both the Safeguarding Co-ordinator and the Deputy, then the report should be made in the first instance to:
PO Box 133, Swanley, Kent, BR8 7UQ
Tel: 0303 003 1111
Alternatively contact Social Services or the police.
- The Safeguarding Co-ordinator should contact the appropriate agency or they may first ring the thirtyone:eight helpline for advice. They should then contact social services in the area the child or adult lives. The Safeguarding Coordinator for the event will be notified in advance of the geographical locations that relevant delegates are coming from.
- The Safeguarding Co-ordinator may need to inform others depending on the circumstances and/or nature of the concern
- Chair or trustee responsible for safeguarding who may need to liaise with the insurance company or the charity commission to report a serious incident.
- Designated officer or LADO (Local Authority Designated Officer) if the allegation concerns a worker or volunteer working with someone under 18.
- Suspicions must not be discussed with anyone other than those nominated above. A written record of the concerns should be made in accordance with these procedures and kept in a secure place.
- Whilst allegations or suspicions of abuse will normally be reported to the Safeguarding Co-ordinator, the absence of the Safeguarding Co-ordinator or Deputy should not delay referral to Social Services, the Police or taking advice from thirtyone:eight.
- The Leadership will support the Safeguarding Co-ordinator/Deputy in their role and accept that any information they may have in their possession will be shared in a strictly limited way on a need to know basis.
- It is, of course, the right of any individual as a citizen to make a direct referral to the safeguarding agencies or seek advice from thirtyone:eight, although the Leadership hope that members of the place of worship / organisation will use this procedure. If, however, the individual with the concern feels that the Safeguarding Co-ordinator/Deputy has not responded appropriately, or where they have a disagreement with the Safeguarding Co-ordinator(s) as to the appropriateness of a referral they are free to contact an outside agency direct. We hope by making this statement that the Leadership demonstrate its commitment to effective safeguarding and the protection of all those who are vulnerable.
The role of the safeguarding co-ordinator/ deputy is to collate and clarify the precise details of the allegation or suspicion and pass this information on to statutory agencies who have a legal duty to investigate.
Detailed procedures where there is a concern about a child:
Allegations of physical injury, neglect or emotional abuse.
If a child has a physical injury, a symptom of neglect or where there are concerns about emotional abuse, the Safeguarding Co-ordinator/Deputy will:
- Contact Children’s Social Services (or thirtyone:eight) for advice in cases of deliberate injury, if concerned about a child's safety or if a child is afraid to return home.
- Not tell the parents or carers unless advised to do so, having contacted Children’s Social Services.
- Seek medical help if needed urgently, informing the doctor of any suspicions.
- For lesser concerns, (e.g. poor parenting), encourage parent/carer to seek help, but not if this places the child at risk of significant harm.
- Where the parent/carer is unwilling to seek help, offer to accompany them. In cases of real concern, if they still fail to act, contact Children’s Social Services direct for advice.
- Seek and follow advice given by thirtyone:eight (who will confirm their advice in writing) if unsure whether or not to refer a case to Children’s Social Services.
Allegations of sexual abuse
In the event of allegations or suspicions of sexual abuse, the Safeguarding Co-ordinator/Deputy will:
- Contact the Children’s Social Services Department Duty Social Worker for children and families or Police Child Protection Team direct. They will NOT speak to the parent/carer or anyone else.
- Seek and follow the advice given by thirtyone:eight if for any reason they are unsure whether or not to contact Children’s Social Services/Police. Thirtyone:eight will confirm its advice in writing for future reference.
Detailed procedures where there is a concern that an adult is in need of protection:
Suspicions or allegations of abuse or harm including; physical, sexual, organisational, financial, discriminatory, neglect, self-neglect, forced marriage, modern slavery, domestic abuse.
If there is concern about any of the above, Safeguarding Co-ordinator/Deputy will:
- Contact the Adult Social Care Team who have responsibility under the Care Act 2014 to investigate allegations of abuse. Alternatively thirtyone:eight can be contacted for advice.
- If the adult is in immediate danger or has sustained a serious injury contact the Emergency Services, informing them of any suspicions.
If there is a concern regarding spiritual abuse, Safeguarding Co-ordinator will:
- Identify support services for the victim i.e. counselling or other pastoral support
- Contact thirtyone:eight and in discussion with them will consider appropriate action with regards to the scale of the concern.
Allegations of abuse against a person who works with children/young people
If an accusation is made against a worker (whether a volunteer or paid member of staff) whilst following the procedure outlined above, the Safeguarding Co-ordinator, in accordance with Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB) procedures will:
- Liaise with Children’s Social Services in regards to the suspension of the worker
- Make a referral to a designated officer formerly called a Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) whose function is to handle all allegations against adults who work with children and young people whether in a paid or voluntary capacity.
- Make a referral to Disclosure and Barring Service for consideration of the person being placed on the barred list for working with children or adults with additional care and support needs. This decision should be informed by the LADO if they are involved.
Allegations of abuse against a person who works with adults with care and support needs
The safeguarding co-ordinator will:
- Liaise with Adult Social Services in regards the suspension of the worker
- Make a referral to the DBS following the advice of Adult Social Services
The Care Act places the duty upon Adult Services to investigate situations of harm to adults with care and support needs. This may result in a range of options including action against the person or organisation causing the harm, increasing the support for the carers or no further action if the ‘victim’ chooses for no further action and they have the capacity to communicate their decision. However, this is a decision for Adult Services to decide not the church.
- Section 5
Supporting those affected by abuse
The Leadership is committed to ensuring the provision of appropriate pastoral care, working with the Safeguarding Coordinator of the local church and statutory agencies as appropriate, and support to all those who have been affected by abuse who have contact with or are part of the place of worship/organisation.
Working with offenders and those who may pose a risk
When someone attending the event is known to have abused children, is under investigation, or is known to be a risk to adults with care and support needs; the Leadership will supervise the individual concerned and offer pastoral care, but in its safeguarding commitment to the protection of children and adults with care and support needs, set boundaries for that person, which they will be expected to keep. These boundaries will be based on an appropriate risk assessment and through consultation with appropriate parties.
Adoption of the policy
This policy was agreed by the leadership and will be reviewed 2 yearly, in advance of the event.
It is recognised that Fusion happens once every two years and it is the only event which Regions Beyond runs where safeguarding oversight is required. Therefore, there is no permanent person within the organisation able to effectively support on an ongoing basis, hence the need for this appendix to the main Safeguarding Policy to state specific procedures for the Fusion 20 event.
The Safeguarding Coordinator for this event is tbc
The Deputy Safeguarding Coordinator is tbc
- Recruitment of volunteers will follow a process requiring a signed recommendation for the position applied for from the applicant’s home church leader and an up-to-date DBS certificate (within 3 years of the event). The Youth and Children’s Team Leaders need to have seen the original DBS Certificate and the Safeguarding Coordinator will keep a record of DBS Certificate numbers on file for the event.
- All team leaders and workers to have a full awareness of the Safeguarding Policy and procedures in this Appendix and to have read and signed the Code of Conduct. During the event all team leaders to have contact details of the Fusion Safeguarding Co-ordinator while on duty.
- All volunteers who will come into contact with children and/or vulnerable adults will have completed mandatory safeguarding training within their home church setting and again as part of team training during the induction meeting with the event Safeguarding Coordinator.
- As stated in the RB Safeguarding Policy, the Fusion Safeguarding Co-ordinator can at any time contact the Thirtyone:eight helpline to discuss concerns and to seek advice.
- If the Fusion Safeguarding Co-ordinator deems it appropriate to discuss any concerns with the parent/carer, family member, home church safeguarding coordinator or lead elder for the purpose of ongoing pastoral care after the Fusion event (as long as the person/persons are not directly implicated in the safeguarding concern and not a risk to the child/young person) the Fusion Safeguarding Co-ordinator will phone Thirtyone:eight and seek their immediate advice. If Thirtyone:eight deem that the proposed course of action would be beneficial to the child or adult in need of protection, and will subsequently confirm this advice in writing via email, then the Fusion Safeguarding Coordinator may proceed at their discretion.
- Should the Safeguarding Coordinator obtain permission from Thirtyone:eight to speak to a church leader, home church safeguarding coordinator or family member, the Youth or Children’s Team Leader (as appropriate) will be informed of this decision. Any information will be shared on a strictly need-to-know basis. The Fusion Safeguarding Coordinator will complete an Inter-Agency Referral Form for the relevant Social Services department for the individual concerned to inform them of concerns raised.
- Youth and Children’s Team Leaders and all volunteers and team to have full awareness of the relevant Fusion Risk Assessments and the Lost Child Policy to ensure they can be vigilant of any potential risks.
- Youth and Children’s Team Leaders to ensure that there is an age-appropriate registration and release process and the workers to have a full understanding of the procedures to ensure the safety of all children and young people.
- Youth and Children’s Team Leaders will stress the importance to all team members and volunteers that under no circumstances may personal mobile phones be used during sessions with children and adults. The taking of video clips or photos from a personal mobile of children and young people in the sessions is prohibited and can only be carried out by authorised persons, and only then where informed consent has been obtained from parents/carers.
Appendix A - Statutory Definitions of Abuse (Children)
Abuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm, or by failing to act to prevent harm.
Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting; by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger. They may be abused by an adult or adults or another child or children. Child protection legislation throughout the UK is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Each nation within the UK has incorporated the convention within its legislation and guidance.
The four definitions (and a few additional categories) of abuse below operate in England based on the government guidance ‘Working Together to Safeguard Children (2018)’.
What is abuse and neglect?
Abuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment of a child. Somebody may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm, or by failing to act to prevent harm. Children may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting, by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger for example, via the internet. They may be abused by an adult or adults, or another child or children.
Physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces, illness in a child.
Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development. It may involve conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person. It may include not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate. It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the child’s developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction. It may involve seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another. It may involve serious bullying (including cyberbullying), causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger, or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone.
Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children.
Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to:
- provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment);
- protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger;
- ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care-givers); or
- ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment.
It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs.
Child exploitationis a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or (b) for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator. The victim may have been sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears consensual. Child sexual exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through the use of technology.
Child Criminal Exploitation is common in county lines and occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, control, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18. The victim may have been criminally exploited even if the activity appears consensual. Child Criminal Exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through the use of technology.
Extremismgoes beyond terrorism and includes people who target the vulnerable – including the young – by seeking to sow division between communities on the basis of race, faith or denomination; justify discrimination towards women and girls; persuade others that minorities are inferior; or argue against the primacy of democracy and the rule of law in our society.
Appendix B - Definitions of Abuse - Adults
The following information relates to the Safeguarding of Adults as defined in the Care Act 2014, Chapter 14. Safeguarding, this replaces the previous guidelines produced in ‘No Secrets’ (Department of Health2000)
The legislation is relevant across England and Wales but on occasions applies only to local authorities in England.
The Safeguarding duties apply to an adult who;
- has need for care and support (whether or not the local authority is meeting any of those needs)and;
- is experiencing, or at risk of, abuse or neglect;and
- as a result of those care and support needs is unable to protect themselves from either the risk of, or the experience of abuse or
Organisations should always promote the adult’s wellbeing in their safeguarding arrangements. People have complex lives and being safe is only one of the things they want for themselves. Professionals should work with the adult to establish what being safe means to them and how that can be best achieved. Professional and other staff should not be advocating ‘safety’ measures that do not take account of individual well-being, as defined in Section 1 of the CareAct.
Link: The Care Act 2014 http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2014/23/contents/enacted
Link: Care and Support Statutory Guidance under the Care Act 2014 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/care-act-statutory-guidance/care-and-support-statutory-guidance
This section considers the different types and patterns of abuse and neglect and the different circumstances in which they may take place. This is not intended to be an exhaustive list but an illustrative guide as to the sort of behaviour which could give rise to a safeguarding concern.
Physical abuse – including assault, hitting, slapping, pushing, misuse of medication, restraint or inappropriate physical sanctions.
Domestic violence – including psychological, physical, sexual, financial, emotional abuse; so called ‘honour’ based violence.
Sexual abuse – including rape, indecent exposure, sexual harassment, inappropriate looking or touching, sexual teasing or innuendo, sexual photography, subjection to pornography or witnessing sexual acts, indecent exposure and sexual assault or sexual acts to which the adult has not consented or was pressured into consenting.
Psychological abuse – including emotional abuse, threats of harm or abandonment, deprivation of contact, humiliation, blaming, controlling, intimidation, coercion, harassment, verbal abuse, cyber bullying, isolation or unreasonable and unjustified withdrawal of services or supportivenetworks.
Financial or material abuse – including theft, fraud, internet scamming, coercion in relation to an adult’s financial affairs or arrangements, including inconnection with wills, property, inheritance or financial transactions, or the misuse or misappropriation of property, possessions orbenefits.
Modern slavery – encompasses slavery, human trafficking, forced labour and domestic servitude. Traffickers and slave masters use whatever means they have at their disposal to coerce, deceive and force individuals into a life of abuse, servitude and inhumane treatment.
Discriminatory abuse – including forms of harassment, slurs or similar treatment; because of race, gender and gender identity, age, disability, sexual orientation or religion.
Organisational abuse – including neglect and poor care practice within an Institution or specific care setting such as a hospital or care home, for example, or in relation to care provided in one’s own home. This may range from one off incidents to on-going ill-treatment. It can be through neglect or poor professional practice as a result of the structure, policies, processes and practices within anorganisation.
Neglect and acts of omission – including ignoring medical, emotional or physical care needs, failure to provide access to appropriate health, care and support or educational services, the withholding of the necessities of life, such as medication, adequate nutrition and heating.
Self-neglect – this covers a wide range of behaviour neglecting to care for one’s personal hygiene, health or surroundings and includes behaviour such as hoarding. Incidents of abuse may be one-off or multiple, and affect one person or more.
Appendix C - Signs of Abuse (Children)
The following signs could be indicators that abuse has taken place but should be considered in context of the child’s whole life.
- Injuries not consistent with the explanation given for them
- Injuries that occur in places not normally exposed to falls, rough games, etc
- Injuries that have not received medical attention
- Reluctance to change for, or participate in, games or swimming
- Repeated urinary infections or unexplained tummy pains
- Bruises on babies, bites, burns, fractures etc which do not have an accidental explanation*
- Cuts/scratches/substance abuse*
- Any allegations made concerning sexual abuse
- Excessive preoccupation with sexual matters and detailed knowledge of adult sexual behaviour
- Age-inappropriate sexual activity through words, play or drawing
- Child who is sexually provocative or seductive with adults
- Inappropriate bed-sharing arrangements at home
- Severe sleep disturbances with fears, phobias, vivid dreams or nightmares, sometimes with overt or veiled sexual connotations
- Eating disorders - anorexia, bulimia*
- Changes or regression in mood or behaviour, particularly where a child withdraws or becomes clinging.
- Depression, aggression, extreme anxiety.
- Nervousness, frozen watchfulness
- Obsessions or phobias
- Sudden under-achievement or lack of concentration
- Inappropriate relationships with peers and/or adults
- Attention-seeking behaviour
- Persistent tiredness
- Running away/stealing/lying
- Under nourishment, failure to grow, constant hunger, stealing or gorging food, Untreated illnesses, Inadequate care, etc
*These indicate the possibility that a child or young person is self-harming. Approximately 20,000 are treated in accident and emergency departments in the UK each year.
Appendix D - Signs of Abuse (Adults)
- History of unexplained falls, fractures, bruises, burns, minor injuries.
- Signs of under or over use of medication and/or medical problems left unattended.
- Any injuries not consistent with the explanation given for them
- Bruising and discolouration - particularly if there is a lot of bruising of different ages
- and in places not normally exposed to falls, rough games etc.
- Recurring injuries without plausible explanation
- Loss of hair, loss of weight and change of appetite
- Person flinches at physical contact &/or keeps fully covered, even in hot weather;
- Person appears frightened or subdued in the presence of a particular person or people
- Unexplained injuries or ‘excuses’ for marks or scars
- Controlling and/or threatening relationship including psychological, physical, sexual, financial, emotional abuse; so called ‘honour’ based violence and Female Genital Mutilation.
- Age range extended to 16 yrs
- Pregnancy in a woman who lacks mental capacity or is unable to consent to sexual intercourse
- Unexplained change in behaviour or sexually explicit behaviour
- Torn, stained or bloody underwear and/or unusual difficulty in walking or sitting
- Infections or sexually transmitted diseases
- Full or partial disclosures or hints of sexual abuse:
- Emotional distress
- Mood changes
- Disturbed sleep patterns
- Psychological abuse
- Alteration in psychological state e.g. withdrawn, agitated, anxious, tearful
- Intimidated or subdued in the presence of a carer
- Fearful, flinching or frightened of making choices or expressing wishes
- Unexplained paranoia
- Changes in mood, attitude and behaviour, excessive fear or anxiety
- Changes in sleep pattern or persistent tiredness
- Loss of appetite
- Helplessness or passivity
- Confusion or disorientation
- Implausible stories and attention seeking behaviour
- Low self-esteem
Financial or material abuse
- Disparity between assets and living conditions
- Unexplained withdrawals from accounts or disappearance of financial documents or loss of money
- Sudden inability to pay bills, getting into debt
- Carers or professionals fail to account for expenses incurred on a person’s behalf
- Recent changes of deeds or title to property
- Missing personal belongings
- Inappropriate granting and / or use of Power of Attorney
- Physical appearance; unkempt, inappropriate clothing, malnourished
- Movement monitored, rarely alone, travel early or late at night to facilitate working hours
- Few personal possessions or ID documents
- Fear of seeking help or trusting people
- Inappropriate remarks, comments or lack of respect
- Poor quality or avoidance care
- Low self-esteem
- Person puts themselves down in terms of their gender or sexuality
- Abuse may be observed in conversations or reports by the person of how they perceive themselves
- Low self-esteem
- Person puts themselves down in terms of their gender or sexuality
- Abuse may be observed in conversations or reports by the person of how they perceive themselves
- No confidence in complaints procedures for staff or service users
- Neglectful or poor professional practice
Neglect and acts of omission
- Deteriorating despite apparent care
- Poor home conditions, clothing or care and support
- Lack of medication or medical intervention
- Hoarding inside or outside a property
- Neglecting personal hygiene or medical needs
- Person looking unkempt or dirty and has poor personal hygiene
- Person is malnourished, has sudden or continuous weight loss and is dehydrated
- Constant hunger, stealing or gorging on food
- Person is dressed inappropriately for the weather conditions
- Dirt, urine or faecal smells in a person’s environment
- Home environment does not meet basic needs (for example not heating or lighting)